Esej o narodzinach zagadnienia tożsamości w historii filozofii

Jan Wawrzyniak


The issue of human identity has been present in philosophical studies since the time of historical rise of ethical issues. Its beginning and further development can be seen in anthropocentric-normative thought of Socrates as well as in eudaimonistic content of classical ethical hedonism. Philosophical concepts of the time were a reaction to both prosperity and the crisis and disintegration of the polis concept. What is crucial here is to examine the models of society that create conceptual spectrum of personalisation vs. depersonalisation of the human — present in the ethics of the Post-Socratic schools of Plato, Aristippus and Antisthenes in the context of their references to current disputes over identity (e.g. European citizenship vs. nationalism). In these reflections, there is a reference to existentialism tradition of Aristippus and Michel de Montaigne and Communitarianism of Antisthenes and Epicurus. Additionally, the liberation of ethics initiated by Aristotle (aretaic personalism) from the politics (civic deontology) is pointed to.

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